Sperm adds very little to the semen volume, so you shouldn't notice any change in your ejaculate after vasectomy. Your partner may sometimes be able to feel the vasectomy site. This is particularly true if you have developed a granuloma.
Ejaculation and orgasm are usually not affected by vasectomy. The special case is the rare man who has developed post-vasectomy pain syndrome.
An uncomplicated vasectomy can't cause impotence.
There is a small chance that a vasectomy may fail. This occurs when sperm leaking from one end of the cut vas deferens find a channel to the other cut end.
In rare cases, the testicular artery may be hurt during vasectomy. Other problems, such as a mass of blood (hematoma) or infection, may also affect the testicles.
Yes, but if you haven't stored frozen sperm you'll need an additional procedure. The vas deferens can be microsurgically reconnected in a procedure called vasectomy reversal. If you don't want to have vasectomy reversal, sperm can be taken from the testicle or the epididymis and used for in vitro fertilization. These procedures are costly and may not be covered by your health plan. Also, they don't always work. If you think you may want to have children one day, you should look into nonsurgical forms of birth control before deciding to have a vasectomy.
Source: American Urological Association